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Bordeaux le Liveine tsa Eona li Fetola… Butle

setšoantšo ka tlhompho ea E.Garely

Tloaelo, moetlo, moetlo… Ka lilemo tse mashome, baetsi ba veine ba Bordeaux ba 'nile ba cheka lirethe, ba khomarela litloaelo le litloaelo tse qalileng makholo a lilemo a fetileng. Fora, botumo ba veine bo thehiloe moetlong (ke hore, tsebo, terroir, appellation d'origine controlee/AOC - lebitso le sirelelitsoeng la tšimoloho). Ho ne ho "lumeloa" hore bareki ba reka veine ea Fora ho ipapisitse le botumo ba eona, kahoo ho ile ha qobelloa melao e thata mabapi le temo ea morara le veine. Ka "tloaelo," indasteri ea veine ea Bordeaux e ne e itšetlehile ka likamano tse haufi pakeng tsa balemi ba veine (libaka), barekisi (li-cotriers), le barekisi ba veine (ba-negociant) ba neng ba rekisa veine molemong oa balemi.

Boholo ba Mmaraka

Mmaraka oa Bordeaux o kenyelletsa balemi ba veine ba ka bang 7000, barekisi ba veine ba 80, le barekisi ba veine ba 300. Morekisi oa veine o thusa leanong la litheko tsa chateau mme o fumana peresente ea thekiso (liperesente tse peli Bordeaux). Mesebetsi ea barekisi ba veine e laoloa ebile e laoloa ke Lekhotla la Lebatooa la Khoebo le Indasteri.

Fetola Ha A Amoheloa

Le hoja moea oa leoatle o ile oa fokotsa tse ling tsa liphello tsa ho futhumala ha lefatše Ho qala ka 2010 liphetoho tsa maemo a leholimo li hlokometsoe ke baetsi ba veine ba Bordeaux 'me litaba tsena tsa boemo ba leholimo li ke ke tsa hlola li hlokomolohuoa haholo-holo ha mocheso o fetoha o tsamaisana le liphetoho tse matla ho tloha ha pula e na nakong ea kotulo ho ea ho. serame, sefefo sa sefako le lehlabula le omileng…ho hloka tsebo ha e sa le thabo.

Karabelo e Matla

Ho nka bohato bo nepahetseng ka Pherekhong 2021, boetapele ba Bordeaux bo ile ba fana ka tumello ea ho hlahisoa ha mefuta e mene e mefubelu e mecha: Arinarnoa, Castets, Marselan le Touriga Nacional hammoho le merara e mesoeu e 'meli, Alvarinho le Lilorila hore e lengoe. Bordeaux ka monyetla oa ho sebelisa liperesente tse 10 tsa mefuta ena motsoako. Merara ena e amohetswe hobane e butswa ka mora nako mme e ka sebetsana le kgatello ya hydric e thibelang sedikadikwe sa dimela, ho fana ka diphetoho tsa mmala, ho fola, ho tswela pele ha tswekere kapa esita le ho theoha ha chai ka dinako tse itseng tsa leqhubu la mocheso. Metsoako ea Bordeaux e ka kenyelletsa Merlot (66 lekholong ea lirapa tsa morara tse lenngoeng), Cabernet Sauvignon (22.5 lekholong), Cabernet Franc (9.5 lekholong) le mefuta e fokolang (2 lekholong) ea Malbec, Petit Verdot le Carmenere.

Mefuta-futa ea limela

Ka leihlo la ho tšoarella, meru, meru le makhoakhoa li ntse li lengoa ka hare le ho potoloha lirapa tsa morara. Ka ho hlokomela hore lik’hemik’hale ha lia nontša mobu, manyolo a chefo aa felisoa ’me mefuta-futa ea lintho tse phelang e fetohile mokhoa o mong o ratoang. Beng ba serapa sa morara le batsamaisi ba eketsa sebaka sa boikhathollo, lifate le meru hammoho le matlo a linotsi ho thusa ho jala. Ho khutlisetsa bophelo mobung, lijo-thollo, clover le lijalo tse ling li ntse li hlahisoa ka sepheo sa ho tšoarella esita le biodynamic lirapeng tsa morara. Mantra ea ts'ebetso e fetela ho li-cellars le mekhoa ea ho tšoara carbon dioxide le ho e sebelisa hape le batsamaisi ba bang ba serapa sa morara ba rekisang potassium bicarbonate eo e leng sehlahisoa sa CO2.

Ka 2020, temo ea manyolo e eketsehile ka liperesente tse 43 ho isa ho lihekthere tse 49,000 ha ka 2019, liperesente tse 55 tsa lihlahisoa tse sebelisoang taolong ea serapa sa morara li ne li loketse temo ea manyolo, ha li bapisoa le liperesente tse 30 ka 2009. bongata bo boholo ba balemi ba Bordeaux ba 5500 ha ba tenyetsehe kapa ba ruile joalo ka beng ba lirapa tsa morara / batsamaisi ba hlahisitseng mekhoa e tsitsitseng.

Tšusumetso ho Merlot

Tšusumetso ea boemo ba leholimo veineng e khubelu ho tloha mehleng ea morao tjena e bonahala boemong ba tai bo eketsehileng (ho tloha ka 2016) ho tloha ho 13 -13.5 lekholong joala ka molumo (abv) ho ea ho 14-15 lekholong 'me e totobetse haholo Merlot, ka ho fetisisa. mefuta e mengata e lengoang Bordeaux. Merara e menyenyane ea Merlot ha e lengoe hampe ka metso e sa tebang haholo e etsang hore e hlolehe ho mamella khatello ea mocheso oa lehlabula.

Bakeng sa balemi ba Merlot ba batlang ho khutlisa lijalo tsa bona, lithuso li teng. Lirapeng tsa morara tse fumanehang Saint Emilion (Cabernet Franc) le Medoc and Graves (Cabernet Sauvignon) ho na le tšusumetso e fokolang ho tloha phetohong ea leholimo (ka nako ena) kahoo mefuta ena e ka sebelisoa sebakeng sa Merlot. Malbec ke kgetho e nngwe kaha e butswa ka botshepehi le morao.

Bofubelu, Bosoeu kapa Rose; Leha ho le joalo kapa Fizz

Liveine tse khubelu tsa Bordeaux li lula li tumme, 'me veine ea Bordeaux e tšoeu e ommeng e ntse e eketseha. US ke 'maraka o moholo oa Bordeaux e tšoeu e omileng e emelang libotlolo tse limilione tse 5.2 thekisong ea selemo le selemo. 'Maraka oa Amerika ha se' maraka oa mono-'me thekiso e eketsehile ho tloha likhethong tse theko e tlaase tsa letsatsi le letsatsi ho ea ho li-classified growths ho tloha ho li-AOC tse tummeng ho kenyeletsa Medoc, Pauillac, St. Estephe, Saint Julien, Margaux), Graves le Satin-Emilion.

Monyetla

Le hoja boemo ba leholimo bo ka 'na ba fa baetsi ba veine ba Bordeaux migraine, ba apere lifahleho tse thabileng kaha thepa e tsoang linaheng tse ling e eketsehile ka karolo ea 16 lekholong le karolo ea 37 lekholong ea boleng ho ea ho li-Euro tse limilione tse likete tse 2.3, tlaleho e phahameng. E etellang pele kholong ke US le China. Ka lekhetho la veine la Trump le tlositsoeng ke Biden, veine ea Bordeaux e khahlehang hajoale e tsoa ho li-vintage tsa 18, 19 le 20. Thekiso ea veine kholong ea Bordeaux e hlahisoa ke: tlhokahalo e nchafalitsoeng ea bareki bakeng sa veine; ho buloa bocha ha libara le lireschorente; kananelo e phahameng ya boleng le ho kgoneha ha veine ya 2018 le 2019 le ho fanyehwa ha ditefiso tsa diperesente tse 24 tsa veine tsa Fora.

Mekhoa e metle ea thekiso e amme 65 ea mefuta e fapaneng ea li-AOC tsa Bordeaux le mefuta eohle ea veine (e khubelu, e tšoeu e omeletseng, ea rosa, e monate le e phatsimang); leha ho le jwalo, veine e kgubedu e dula e le sehlopha se hlahelletseng ka ho fetisisa mmarakeng wa US mme Bordeaux e tshweu e ommeng e ntse e tuma haholo. US ke 'maraka oa 1 bakeng sa Bordeaux e tšoeu e omeletseng, e emelang libotlolo tse limilione tse 4.13.

Diperesente tse leshome le metso e tsheletseng tsa veine tse hlahiswang lefatsheng ka bophara di tswa Fora mme naha ke yona moreki e moholo wa veine matjhabeng. Indasteri ea veine e na le boikarabelo ba ho kenya letsoho ka li-Euro tse 7.6 bilione moruong oa Fora ka ho romela kantle ho naha le ho fana ka mesebetsi ho batho ba fetang halofo ea milione. Indasteri ea veine e bile e ts'ehetsa bohahlauli, ka basele ba limilione tse 24 ba etelang libaka tsa veine tsa Fora selemo se seng le se seng.

Ena ke letoto le shebaneng le veine ea Bordeaux.

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© Dr. Elinor Garely. Sengoloa sena sa litokelo tsa mantlha, ho kenyeletsoa linepe, se kanna sa hlahisoa bocha ntle le tumello e ngotsoeng ea mongoli.

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Ngaka Elinor Garely - ea ikhethang ho eTN le mohlophisi ea ka sehloohong, li-veine

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