Tobetsa mona ho bonts'a lifolakha tsa HAO leqepheng lena mme u lefelle katleho feela

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Ke Fora feela: Champagne e nang le Romantic Happy Bubbles

Setšoantšo se amoheloa ke E.Garely

Oscar Wilde o itse, "Ke batho ba sa nahaneng feela ba ka sitoang ho fumana lebaka la ho noa champagne."

Tlhahiso ea Champagne e qalile makholong a lilemo, 'me tsebo e bokelletsoeng le likamano tse kholo tsa sechaba li entse hore lihlahisoa tsa Fora le Fora e be e' ngoe ea "linaha tsa veine" tse tšoantšetsang ka ho fetisisa lefatšeng.

Fora ke sebaka se le seng feela lefatšeng moo motho ea noang joala a ka fumanang morara, le lirapa tsa morara tse hlahisang Champagne.

Fora le veine li tšoana kaha sehlahisoa ke karolo ea bohlokoa ea nalane ea naha ea temo, lijo le setso le boitsebahatso.

Ka 2018, Fora e ne e na le lihekthere tse ka bang 786,000 tsa lifate tsa morara, ka sehlahisoa sa hoo e ka bang 46.4 hectoliters, e leng se etsang hore Fora e be mohlahisi oa bobeli o moholo oa veine lefatšeng ka bophara, ka morao ho Italy. Tlhahiso ea Fora e emela karolo ea 16.5 lekholong ea tlhahiso ea veine lefatšeng ka bophara. Ho ea ka pono e holimo, hektare e le 'ngoe ho tse ling le tse ling tse 10 tsa lifate tsa morara lefatšeng li fumaneha Fora.

Enjene ea Moruo

Lefapha la veine le hirile batho ba ka bang 558,000, ho kenyeletsoa balemi ba veine ba 142,000, 'me ba ka bang 84,000 ke litho tsa e 'ngoe ea li-cellars tse 690 tsa Fora tse thehileng mesebetsi e tobileng e 300,000, barekisi ba 38,000, 3,000 sommeliers ea veine, basebetsi ba 100,000 ba kabo ea veine, basebetsi ba 15,000. . Likarolo tse peli ho tse tharo tsa tlhahiso ea veine ea Fora e jeoa Fora 'me karolo ea 85 lekholong ea malapa a Fora (limilione tse 23) e ja veine hae (2017).

Hoo e ka bang bahahlauli ba veine ba limilione tse 10 (liperesente tse 42 ba tsoang kantle ho naha) ba etela libaka tsa polokelo ea veine tsa Fora tse 10,000 kapa litsi tsa pokello ea nalane tse 31 tse etselitsoeng veine Fora. 

Ho Romela Veine Linaheng Tse Ling

Fora ke morekisi wa veini o moholo ka ho fetisisa lefatsheng (o emeng ka pela Italy le Spain) ka diperesente tse 29 tsa boleng bo etsang hore e be sehlahiswa sa leano bakeng sa diyantle tsa Fora. Ka 2018, Fora e ile ea romela kantle ho naha hoo e ka bang li-hectoliter tse 14.9 bakeng sa li-Euro tse ka bang limilione tse likete tse 8.9 (tse lekanang le lifofane tse fetang 100 tsa Airbus). Li-export tsa Fora haholo-holo (hoo e ka bang karolo ea 60 lekholong) li lebisitsoe linaheng tsa Europe, tse etelletsoeng pele ke Jeremane le United Kingdom; leha ho le joalo, sebaka se seholo sa veine ea Fora ke USA (karolo ea 16 lekholong ea boleng bo romelloang kantle ho naha, haholo ka libotlolong).

Sefora se hlalosa Veine

Ka 1907 veine e ile ea hlalosoa ka molao Fora e le seno se lomositsoeng moo likarolo tsohle li tlamehang ho tsoa ho morara, ho kenyeletsoa metsi haholo-holo litatso. Sepheo: ho thibela tlhahiso efe kapa efe e seng molaong e ka eketsang tlhahiso le kotsi e etsang hore litheko tsa veine li theohe.

Veine ea machaba e hlalositsoe (1973) ke Ofisi ea Machaba ea Veine (OIV) e thehiloeng ka 1924 e le "hantle seno se hlahisoang ke ho belisoa ho feletseng kapa karolo ea tahi ea morara o mocha, o sithabetseng kapa che, kapa oa morara o tlamehang. Matla a tahi a ka ’na a se be ka tlaase ho karolo ea 8.5 lekholong ka boholo.”

Lefapha la veine la Fora ke la pele le thehileng nts'etsopele ea lona holim'a tlhaloso ea tšimoloho, ho boloka polelo ea terroir eo tlhahiso e feteletseng e ka fokotsang. Ho ea ka pono ea moruo, tloaelo ea ho khetha veine e hatelletsoeng ka har'a lihlahisoa tsa tsona e sireletsa khahlanong le likotsi tsa tlhahiso e feteletseng le ho putlama ha theko.

Bahlahisi ba champagne ba laola ka tjantjello ts'ebetso ea tlhahiso, ba sireletsa botumo ba veine e phatsimang joalo ka thepa e ikhethang.

Champagne e bile sebaka sa pele sa ho fuoa lebitso (ho aroloa ho laoloa) ke naha ea Fora. Khopolo ea ho arola e ile ea e-ba ea bohlokoa haholo lekholong la bo20 la lilemo kaha champagne e bohlokoa ho boitsebiso ba naha ea Fora 'me e thusa ho theha litsela tseo ka tsona terroir le tsamaiso ea mabitso a laoloang a bolokang leloko la Fora ka ho khetheha.

Champagne. Phello e sa Lebelloang

Nalane e fana ka maikutlo a hore veine e phatsimang e "tsoetsoe" ka tsietsi - tlhahiso ea khase ea carbonic e hlahang ho belisoa ha litomoso. Liveine tse ngata li ka “phatsima,” leha ho le joalo, bahlahisi ba Champagne ba tsepamisitse maikutlo holim’a bokhoni ba ’maraka ba seno se phatsimang, ba sebetsa ka thata ho ntšetsa pele litšoaneleho tse ikhethang tse amanang le meloko ea bahlomphehi le litšōmo tsa lerato, tse hokahanyang seno, sebaka le bahlahisi. nakong e fetileng e ikhethang le e holimo-limo.

Ka Belle Epoque (1871-80), ho noa champagne e ne e le ho kenya letsoho molemong oa bophelo bo tsoetseng pele. E ile ea fetoha lets'oao la naha 'marakeng oa machaba, sehlahisoa se nang le litšoantšiso tse ngata haholo le tsa setso.

Champagne ke motsoako

Champagne ke veine e tsoakiloeng, 'me libaka tse kholo tsa malapa li laola batho ba nang le boikarabelo ba ho senya, ho kopanya, ho tsofala le ho bapatsa veine. Morara le mobu e ne e le tsona feela mekhoa ea balemi ea ho laola kabo ea Champagne. The phylloxera epidemic of the 1890s e ile ea sokela li-vignerons le negociants e lebisang ho tiisetsong ea khopolo ea hore Champagne e le sebaka se hlalositsoeng e ne e le motheo oa boitsebiso ba Champagne e le seno sa naha le sa machaba.

Ho bile le tsitsipano pakeng tsa balemi ba morara le ba buisanang. Balemi ba rekisa hoo e ka bang karolo ea 23 lekholong ea libotlolo tsohle tsa Champagne, empa karolo ea 92 lekholong ea thekiso ena e etsoa Fora. Bongata ba li-vignerone ke litho tsa e 'ngoe ea likoporasi tse 137 tikolohong eo,' me li etselitsoe ho fa bahlahisi ba banyenyane monyetla oa ho fumana chelete eo ba neng ba ke ke ba e fumana ka bomong le ho matlafatsa matla a bona a ho buisana ha ba tobane le matla a phahameng a moruo a bahoebi le ba mahareng. . Ho na le likoporasi tse ngata Champagne ho feta sebaka leha e le sefe sa veine sa Fora, 'me li etselitsoe ho sebetsa morara, le ho rekisa lero kapa veine e ntseng e le teng matlong.

Ho na le mekhoa e mene ea ho sebetsana le morara:

1. Tobetsa le ho rekisa lero

2. Etsa veine e khutsitseng e rekisoang

3. Kenya veine e sa tsitsang ka ho belisoa ha bobeli ka botlolong ebe e rekisoa

4. Kenya veine e sa tsitsang ka ho belisoa ha bobeli ka botlolong 'me u e rekisetse ba bang e le sehlahisoa sa bona

5. Hlahisa veine e monate e rekisoang tlasa label ea bona ka tlholisano le barekisi le balemi ba bang.

Lihlahisoa tsa Champagne

Lihlopha tse hlano hajoale li laola boholo ba 'maraka oa Champagne.

1. Moet-Hennessy Louis Vuitton (LVMH) (e kholo ka ho fetisisa sebakeng sa mabothobotho):

• Moet et Chandon (1743)

• Veuve Clicquot (1772)

• Krug (1843)

• Ruinart (1764)

• Mercier (1858)

Lihlopha tse ling li kenyelletsa:

2. Vranken Pommery (1858), BCC ea nang le:

• Lanson (1760)

• Boizel (1834)

• deVenoge (1837)

3. Laurent Perrier (1812) e kenyelletsa:

• Salon (e thehiloe ka 1911). E 'ngoe ea matlo a tummeng ka ho fetisisa Champagne. Sebakeng sa ho etsa mefuta e mengata ea setaele e kenyelletsang cuvée ea maemo a holimo joalo ka matlo a Champagne a mangata, Salon e etsa cuvée e le 'ngoe ea botumo, e entsoeng ka botlalo ho tloha Chardonnay ho tloha motseng oa Le Mesnil-sur-Oger.

• Delamotte (1760)

4. Pernod Ricard (sehlopha sa machaba sa lino tse tahang)

• Mme (1827)

• Perrier Jouet (1811)

5. Remy Contreau

• Charles le Piper Heidsieck (1851)

Likhoebo tse 17 tse mahareng li etsa liperesente tse 33 tsa boleng:

• Taittinger (qalong 1734; Taittinger 1931)

• Louis Roederer (1833)

• Bollinger (1829)

• Pol Roger (1849)

Nicolas Feuillatte (Champagne e rekisoang ka ho fetesisa ho li-hyper le lisuphamakete tsa Mafora ka 2020) e rekisa libotlolo tse limilione tse 4.5, libotlolo tse limilione tse 2.6 ho feta mofuta oa bobeli o rekisoang haholo, Alfred Rothschld. Letšoao la Feuillatte (le qalileng ka 1976) le kopanya likoporasi tse nyane tse 80 khoebong e le 'ngoe, ka tsela e sa tobang e kopanyang li-vignerons tse ka bang 6,000 sebakeng seo. Nicolas Feuillatte ke lets'oao la bo-4 kapa la bohlano lefatšeng ka bophara.

Li-Champagne tse peli tsa maemo a holimo tse qalileng mokhoa ona li ntse li tsoela pele ho ba tsa bohlokoa 'marakeng oa mabothobotho: Moet's Dom Perignon, le Roederer's Cristal. Ntlo ea Roederer e qalile Cristal lekholong la bo19 la lilemo bakeng sa Lekhotla la Imperial la Russia, le Czar Alexander II. Cuvee e fumane lebitso la eona ho tsoa botlolong e sa tloaelehang ea kristale e hlakileng eo moemphera a neng a tsitlallela ho e sebelisa. Moet & Chandon, e leng mohlahisi e moholo haholo, ke karolo e nyane lekholong ea kakaretso ea tlhahiso ea Moet. Veine e ile ea qala ho rekisoa mathoasong a lilemo tsa bo-20, ka ho khetheha Engelane, le United States, e fumaneha Fora bohareng ba lilemo tsa bo-20.

The Ultimate in Luxury

Bareki ba nka Champagne e le ntho e mabothobotho 'me ka boithatelo ba lefa litheko tsa pele bakeng sa sehlahisoa se jang hoo e ka bang li-Euro tse 9 ho hlahisa (brut ea motheo, e seng ea khale); ke papatso e bohlale le botsitso ba boleng bo e behileng ka katleho joalo ka letšoao le tšōmo.

Liphuputso li bontša hore Champagne ha e rekoe letsatsi le letsatsi mabenkeleng a maholo.

Ke feela (ka karolelano) ho rekoa 1.8 ka motho ka mong, ka selemo ho etsoa, ​​​​ho fapana le ho reka ha 5 ho motho ka mong ka selemo bakeng sa veine e phatsimang ka kakaretso (ho sa kenyelelitsoe Champagne). Lipatlisiso li boetse li bontša hore karolo ea 60 lekholong ea bareki ba noa Champagne ka mabaka a sechaba kapa a boithabiso, 'me lilemo tse tloaelehileng tsa bareki ba Champagne li pakeng tsa 35-64, le basali ba matla ba latelang pakeng tsa lilemo tse 17-24.

Limmaraka tse ling li na le ho fokotseha ha thekiso ea Champagne, 'me ena e kanna ea ba nako e nepahetseng ea ho holisa boiteko ba ho bapatsa ho feta mokete, botahoa le thetso ho atolosa khetho ea aperitif le lijo.

APVSA - E tlisa Champagne e Ncha New York

Haeba u moreki oa veine, moreki oa thepa, morekisi, moemeli, sengoli/mohlahlobi oa veine, sommelier kapa morupeli oa veine, o tlameha ho kopana le Pascal Fernand mothehi oa Association pour la Promotion des Vins et Spiritueux (APVSA), mokhatlo o sa etseng phaello e hokahanya li-winegrowers/baetsi ba veine le limmaraka tsa Amerika Leboea (ho kenyeletsoa USA, Mexico le Canada). E thehiloe Montreal, Fernand o qetile lilemo tse fetang 20 a hlahisa veine ea boutique, le bahlahisi ba li-spirit limmarakeng tse ncha, le bareki ba bacha.

Ketsahalong ea morao-rao ea APVSA New York City, ke bile le lehlohonolo la ho kopana le Mathieu Copin, oa Champagne Jacque Copin, ea lulang Verneuil, Fora. Hajoale Copin Champagne e romelloa kantle ho naha, 'me e ajoa California, Puerto Rico, Japan, The Netherlands, Sweden, Denmark, Switzerland, Germany, Switzerland, South Africa le Cambodia.

Thepa ea lelapa, e ikemetseng e sebakeng sa serapa sa morara sa 10ha Marne Valley moo ho hlahisoa tse ling tsa Champagne tse khahlang haholo le tse ikhethang. Pinot Meunier, mofuta oa morara sebakeng seo, ke sebaka sa Copin Champagnes.

Sebaka sena se ile sa qalisoa ke Alfred Copin qetellong ea lilemo tsa 19th ha a ne a reka lirapa tsa morara Vandieres. Sebaka sa veine se ile sa fetisetsoa ho Maurice Brio, le Auguste Copin ba ileng ba nka karolo ea boetapele ha ba ntse ba lema morara oa pele oa Chardonnay, le Pinot Noir. Ho qala ka 1963 Jacques Copin o ile a atolosa khoebo ea Verneuil le mosali oa hae, Anne-Marie, a hlahisa Champagne Jacques Copin cha.

Ho tloha 1995, Bruno le mosali oa hae, Marielle le bana ba bona, Mathieu le Lucille, ba etella pele ts'ebetso ea mofuta oa Copin ho kopanya moetlo le theknoloji ea sejoale-joale. Lirapa tsa morara li hlokomeloa ka letsoho 'me vinification e etsahala ka libarele tsa oak ha thermo-regulated stainless-steel vats le micro-vinification li lumella tlhahiso ea champagne e ikhethang.

Lithatohatsi tsa Copin tsa Botho

Copin e hlahisa Champagne tse ngata 'me tse latelang li bontša likarabo tsa ka tse chesehang ho tse seng kae tse khethiloeng:

1. Polyphenols 2012. Extra Brut. 50% Chardonnay, 50% Pinot Noir.

Polyphenols (phonelic compound) ke tlhaho ho morara. Li teng letlalong, li fana ka 'mala le monko o monate' me li nkoa li le molemo ho bophelo bo botle. Moprofesa Jeremy Spencer, Lefapha la Lijo le Phepo ea Saense, Univesithi ea Reading, o fumana hore polyphenols e na le, "monyetla oa ho susumetsa ts'ebetso ea kelello joalo ka mohopolo ...' Lipatlisiso tse ling tse tsoang Univesithing li senotse hore, "likhalase tse peli tsa champagne ka letsatsi li ka ba molemo. bakeng sa pelo ea hao le phallo ea mali ’me e ka fokotsa likotsi tsa ho tšoaroa ke lefu la pelo le methapo ea mali le setorouku.”

Morara oa Polyphenols Copin o ile oa kotuloa ka letsoho nakong ea Loetse 19-20, 2012, 'me oa hatelloa nakong ea lihora tse 6; disgorgement e etsahetse ka ho hoama ka jetting mme ha ho SO2 e kentsoeng. Veine e ile ea kenngoa botlolong ka la 8 Hlakubele 2013, ka Sefora ho entsoe likhalase tse mebala tsa sinamone ho tsoa femeng ea OI SAS France de Reims. Ha ho na serame kapa ho sefa; ho belisoa ha malolactic; ha ho na likhahla. Ho roala ka ho belisoa ha tahi: Tomoso e ommeng e sebetsang e behiloe ho fihlela ho likhato tse 17 tsa C ka har'a lijana tsa tšepe. Cellar e nang le bonyane likhoeli tse 108 ka likhato tse 11 tsa C e nang le kork e koahetsoeng le P103 seal.

Brut ena, halofo ea chardonnay le halofo ea pinot noir e fana ka 'mala o monate oa khauta mahlong, litholoana tse butsoitseng tse tšoeu, liapole tse tala, plums, grapefruit, mahe a linotsi le linoto tse halikiloeng nkong, ebe e kenya sebopeho se ikhethang le se monate mahalapeng. e hatisoa ke acidity e tšoailoeng. E teteaneng, e rarahaneng le e monate, champagne ena e fana ka qetello e telele le e thabisang. Kopanya le nama ea kolobe, salmon, tuna, shellfish kapa chisi e bonolo / e bonolo.

2. Rose Brut. 60 lekholong Pinot Noir, 25 lekholong Meunier, 15 lekholong Chardonnay ho tsoa Metseng e meraro e Marne Valley (Veneuil, Vincelles, Vandieres).

Viticulture e tsitsitseng e nang le tšebeliso e fokolang ea lihlahisoa tsa maiketsetso. Kotulo ka letsoho e lateloe ke ho hatella moea. Ho belisoa ha karolo e itseng ho qalisoa ka mocheso o tlase ka har'a litanka tsa tšepe tse sa hloekang ho fana ka veine e ommeng e nang le joala bo tlase. Joale veine e tlhotloa hanyenyane ho boloka litomoso. Ho belisoa ho qala bocha ka tlhaho bonyane likhoeli tse 2; khatello e feteletseng e entsoeng ka botlolo e thibela ho belisoa ho hocha. The disgorgement e etsoa ka decanting botlolo tlas'a khatello, le nyopa filtration.

Bopinki bo tebileng ba likorale mahlong a bona hammoho le lipululana tse monate. Nko e thabisoa ke monko o monate oa cherries e ncha le fragole. Malapa a thabela ho sibolloa ha litholoana tse khubelu tse leka-lekaneng ka litlama le asiti e bobebe. Natefeloa joalo ka aperitif kapa ka likuku tsa makhala, letata, tlhapi le lijo tse theolelang tse entsoeng ka chokolete le litholoana.

3. Le Beauchet Extra Brut. 100% Pinot Noir e entsoe ka motsoako oa kotulo ho tloha 2012, 2013 le 2014 ho tloha Beauchet plot. Lifate tsa morara li lenngoe ka 1981 ka kutu ea 41B.

Sebaka sena se shebane le boroa-bophirimela, se nang le moepa o tlaase haholo tlaase ho maralla, haholo-holo mobu oa letsopa-loamy o nang le lejoe la mokoetla le nang le tšepe e ngata haholo. Morara o khethoa ka letsoho ebe o hatelloa nakong ea lihora tse 6. Ho senyeha ka ho hoama ka jetting ntle le S02 e ekelitsoeng.

E tšeloa ka Hlakubele, Mmesa kapa Mots'eanong kamora ho kha, ka boima bo bobebe French e ile ea etsa libotlolo tsa champagne tsa khalase ho tsoa fekthering ea O1 de Reims. Ha ho ho hatsela kapa ho sefa. Racking ka mor'a hore ho belisoa ha AF Malolactic ha hoa etsoa. Ha ho li-finings. Ho belisoa ha joala. Tomoso e sebetsang e ommeng Saccharomyces cerevisiae galactose e mocheso oa likhato tse 18 C ka har'a linkho tsa tšepe. Letsatsi la disgorgement le ngotsoe holim'a botlolo ea botlolo le koro; e phomola likhoeli tse 5-6 pele e rekisoa.

Bakeng sa tlhaiso-leseling e batsi ka veine e fumanehang ka APVSA, tlanya mona.

© Dr. Elinor Garely. Sengoloa sena sa litokelo tsa mantlha, ho kenyeletsoa linepe, se kanna sa hlahisoa bocha ntle le tumello e ngotsoeng ea mongoli.

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