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Litšoantšo tsa Histori tsa Sebini se Tummeng sa Hotele sa Amerika

setšoantšo ka tlhompho ea S.Turkel
ngotsoeng ke Linda S. Hohnholz

Mathoasong a lilemo tsa bo-1920, Edward Hopper o ile a hlahisa litšoantšo le likoahelo tsa Tavern Topics, tse hatisitsoeng le ho ajoa ke Waldorf Astoria. hoteleng e New York, 'me ka 1924 le 1925, o ile a taka likoahelo tse khanyang tse leshome le metso e robeli tsa makasine ea khoebo ea Hotel Management.

Setsebi sena sa Leamerika, Edward Hopper, o ne a tsebahala ka ho thahasella lihotele, lihotele, mahae a bahahlauli, le litšebeletso tse ngata tsa kamohelo ea baeti. Ho tloha ka 1920 ho isa ho 1925 o sebelitse e le sets'oants'o sa khoebo sa Tsamaiso ea Lihotele le Lihlooho tsa Tavern ho tloha ho Great Depression ka Cold War. O ile a eketsa tsebo ea hae ea litšebeletso tsa kamohelo ea baeti e le moeti oa khafetsa libakeng tsa bolulo tse 'maloa maetong a malelele a koloi ao a ileng a a nka le mosali oa hae, sebini Josephine Hopper. Ho tloha bohareng ba lilemo tsa bo-1920 le mathoasong a lilemo tsa bo-1960, Hopper o ile a hlahloba lithuto tsa litšebeletso tsa kamohelo ea baeti ka litšoantšo, mebala ea metsi, litšoantšo le litšoantšo. Ka linako tse ling o ne a bitsa mesebetsi ena e le "hotele" kapa "motele," empa hangata o ne a sa e etse. Ho feta halofo ke likarolo tsa libaka tsa marang-rang, tse se nang palo e nyane ea boqapi le laesense ea bonono.

Edward le Jo ba phetse boholo ba bophelo ba bona Manhattan, eo, joalo ka libaka tse ling ho pholletsa le naha, e bileng le kholo e kholo ea kaho ea lihotele kotareng ea pele ea lekholo la mashome a mabeli la lilemo. Chelete e hlahisoang ke hotele e theohile ka liperesente tse fetang 25 lilemong tsa khatello ea maikutlo tsa 1929 ho fihlela 1935, e neng e se tšitiso ho Hopper.

Pakeng tsa Lintoa tsa Lefatše, Hopper o ile a hlahisa bonyane litšoantšo tse peli le litšoantšo tse hlano tse kopanyang likarolo tsa meralo ea lihotele tse fapaneng tsa litoropong - tseo tse ling tsa tsona a neng a li tseba ha a ne a lula New York, ha ba bang ba ne ba ts'oara litšoantšo tse hlahisitsoeng maqepheng a Hotel Management nakong ea lilemo tseo a neng a li tseba. e hlahisitse likoahelo tsa eona. Ka kakaretso, likoahelo li bontša banyalani ba khabane ba tantša, ba ja le ho palama likepe sebakeng sa hotele.

Ha ba sheba ka ntle ho ntlo ea bona e 3 Washington Square North New York, ba ha Hoppers ba ka be ba ile ba kopana le mehaho e mengata ea khiriso e nyalisitsoeng, ho kenyeletsoa le kampana ea mekato e leshome e 53 Washington Square South. E qapiloe ke McKim, Mead & White 'me e hahiloe ka 1893, ena e ne e hlile e le karolo ea Hotel Judson, chelete e fumanoang ho eona e thusitseng Kereke e haufi ea Judson Memorial. Hopper o ile a hapa pono ena setšoantšong sa November, Washington Square, seo a se qalileng ka 1932 'me a eketsa likarolo tsa leholimo ka 1959. Motsoalle oa Hoppers, moetsi oa litšoantšo John Sloan, o ne a lula Hotel Judson ka lilemo tse robeli, ho fihlela a lelekoa. Univesithi ea New York (eo pejana e neng e hapile thepa). Mohaho oa mekato e meraro, o chesitsoeng oa lamunu o ka letsohong le letšehali ho mofuta o pentiloeng ke House of Genius boardinghouse, e 61 Washington Square South, eo, ka linako tse fapaneng ho tloha ka bo-1910 ho fihlela ka bo-1930, e neng e lula bataki, bangoli, liroki le libini, ho kenyelletsa Theodore Dreiser, John Dos Passos, Eugene O'Neill, le Alan Seeger.

Lihotele tsa lifolete ke tse ling tsa meaho e nahanang ka mefuta ea meralo ea Hopper e entsoeng ka lipina tse khethiloeng joalo ka House at Dusk. Matlo a tummeng, a litoropong a fanang ka likhiriso tsa nakoana, tsena e ne e le lifolete empa li na le lits'ebeletso tsa hotele. Libaka tsena tse nyalisitsoeng tsa maemo a mahareng li ne li na le liyuniti tse ngata tse nang le likamore tsa ho hlapa tse arolelanoang, 'me hangata li ne li e-na le likamore tsa ho phomola tse nang le piano, 'me li fana ka ntlo ea lijo, mosireletsi le tšebeletso ea letsatsi le letsatsi.

Liphetho tsa bonyane litšoantšo tse robong tsa liphuputso, Hotel Lobby, mohlomong ke eona phekolo e felletseng ea Hopper ea sehlooho sa litšebeletso tsa kamohelo ea baeti.

Mosali e mong e mocha ea apereng mose o moputsoa o lutse setulong se ka holimo, o bala buka ea hae, a otlile ka likhutlo tse bonts'ang tsa molekane oa hae ea seng a hōlile ho feta foir. Lerakong le ka morao, ha motho a sheba ka har'a lithapo tse lefifi monyako o bulehileng, ho na le reschorente e nang le litafole tse koahetsoeng ka line. Methapo e entsoeng fatše e bontša melao-motheo ea moralo oa nako e tšoarang k'hapete e le mokhoa oa ho tataisa matšoele le ho tseba hore na thepa ea ka tlung ke efe. Ntho ea bohlokoa le ho feta bakeng sa taolo ea bongata le boemo ba leholimo ke lemati le bilikang—le hanngoeng ka ho le letšehali ho Hotel Lobby. Bakeng sa litšoantšo tsohle tsa litoropo tsa Hopper, mamati a pota-potileng a hlaha lithutong tse peli feela tsa mosebetsi ona le ho penta e le 'ngoe feela (Sunlight in a Cafeteria, 1958, Yale University Art Gallery). Liphapano tsa lemati le pota-potileng li bile teng ho tloha bonyane bohareng ba lekholo la leshome le metso e robong ka sepheo sa ho laola moea le ho boloka mocheso o sa fetohe libakeng tsa sechaba. E le hore ho se ke ha e-ba le moea o kenang ho tsoa ka ntle, lemati le bilikang le ne le “tsoela kamehla,” ho ea ka mantsoe a motšehetsi oa pele. Sena se thusa ho hlalosa kamoo setšoantšo sa Hotel Lobby, se ileng sa phethoa ka January 1943, 'me se neng se e-na le banyalani ba apereng liaparo tsa mariha, se neng se ka tšoantša mosali ea apereng jase ea apereng seaparo sa matsoho a makhutšoanyane.

Bongata ba likoahelo tse 18 tse tsebahalang tsa Hopper HM li entsoe bohareng ba lilemo tsa bo-1920. Hangata, likoahelo li bonts'a baratani ba le bang kapa ba bangata ba khabane ba natefeloa ke ketsahalo e kang ho tantša, ho jella le ho bapala seketsoana khahlano le semelo sa hotele se entsoeng. Hopper o sebelisitse lihotele tsa 'nete - Cincinnatian Hotel ea Ohio le Mohonk Mountain House ea New York - joalo ka khothatso ho tse peli tsa likoahelo. Mebala e bobebe ea lipapiso le mesebetsi e matla ke ho tloha ho mesebetsi e tsebahalang haholo ea Hopper, joalo ka "Automat" kapa "Nighthawks" e ikhethang. The Hoppers, Edward le Josephine [le eena e leng setaki], ba ne ba ja lijo tsa motšeare letsatsi le leng le le leng The Hotel Dixie e New York.

'Me mohlomong ka lebaka la ho amohela moea oa ho amohela baeti hore ke taba ea moeti, VMFA e se e tsoetse pele, e nchafatsa kamore ea hotele e bonoang mosebetsing oa Hopper oa 1957 "Western Hotel."

Edward le Jo ba ile ba qala ho hira matlo a lehlabula Truro Boroa ho Cape Cod ka 1930 'me ba ne ba reka setša ebe ba haha ​​​​ntlo moo lilemo tse seng kae hamorao. Lilemong tsa bo-1940, Cape Cod e ne e e-na le matlo a mangata a bahahlauli-a nang le matlo a malapa a le mong a fanang ka likamore bakeng sa bolulo ba nakoana, hangata ka nako ea selemo. Kaha Hopper o ne a thahasella ho haha ​​​​mehaho ea lehae ka ho teba, o ile a penta matlo a 'maloa a bahahlauli nakong ea mosebetsi oa hae o molelele, empa ho bonahala eka o ne a thahasella haholo sebaka se le seng sa bolulo Provincetown e Cape Cod. O ile a qeta masiu a 'maloa a malelele a eme ka pel'a mohaho, a etsa litšoantšo, ho fella ka setšoantšo se fanang ka pono ea likamore tse ka pele tsa ntlo-ho hlakile hore baahi ba ne ba ipotsa hore na moetsi oa litšoantšo o ntse a etsa eng, a lutse moo Buick ea hae a ntse a taka.

Ba ha Hoppers ba ile ba nka maeto a malelele a nako le nako ho batla litaba ho pholletsa le New England, Bophirima le Mexico, har'a libaka tse ling. Libakeng tsena, ba ne ba lula mahaeng a bahahlauli, 'me qetellong, ha moputso oa Edward o ntse o eketseha, lihoteleng le makhotleng a likoloi. Likarolo tsa li-diaries tsa Jo - tse akaretsang bohareng ba lilemo tsa bo-1930 ho isa lilemong tsa bo-1960, 'me li sa tsoa fuoa Mokhatlo oa Bonono oa Provincetown le Musiamo - li senola leqephe le le leng la litlhaloso tse atolositsoeng tsa libaka tsena tsa bolulo le maikutlo a banyalani ka tsona. E 'ngoe ea likhakanyo tsena tse mebala-bala le tse telele ho feta tse ling e bua ka ho lula ha bona Lekhotleng la Weseman Motor e El Paso ho tloha ka la 15 Tšitoe ho fihlela la 22 Tšitoe 1952. Hopper o ile a penta Western Motel nakong ea kopano ea Huntington Hartford Foundation e Pacific Palisades, California, empa canvas e boetse e hlahisa litlhaloso tsa Jo le boralitaba ba mehleng ea kajeno ba buang ka bolulo ho El Paso.

Ba ha Hoppers ba ile ba nka maeto a malelele a mahlano ho ea Mexico pakeng tsa 1943 le 1955, moo ba ileng ba boela ba etela libaka tse 'maloa United States; ba ile ba tsamaea ka terene ka 1943, empa libakeng tse ling ba ne ba tsamaea ka koloi. Hangata ba ne ba etsa boholo ba sebaka ho latela boleng ba bolulo ba bona le pono e fanoang ke kamore ea bona le marulelong a mohaho. Boholo ba seo re se tsebang ka nako ea Hopper ha a le Mexico e tsoa mangolong a banyalani ka hotele le li-motel letterhead le li-postcard. Ha a intša ho tloha leetong la hae la pele la ho ea Mexico, Saltillo Rooftops o kenya stovepipe marulelong a hotele ea hae Ntlong ea Guarhado (moo eena le Jo ba ileng ba lula teng) ka pele ho leka-lekanya nako e ntseng e tsoela pele ea lithaba tsa Sierra Madre ka morao. Monterrey Cathedral, o khutlela tloaelong ea hae ea ho sebelisa marobalo a hae (tabeng ena Hotel Monterrey) e le sesebelisoa sa ho etsa foreimi ea ho kopanya lethathamo la lihotele le meaho e meng - lets'oao le khutsitsoeng la Hotel Bermuda le hlaha ka tlase ho le letšehali. Lihotele le li-motel li ka fana ka papiso e molemo bakeng sa ho utloisisa boholo ba mosebetsi oa Hopper ka kakaretso. O ile a nka habobebe hore lihotele le litšoantšo tse takiloeng li fana ka liphihlelo tsa nakoana, li sebeletsa batho ba bangata, 'me, qetellong, ke lipono tse entsoeng haholo. Hopper o ne a talima bonono ba hae—metako ea hae haholo-holo le mebala ea metsi—e le libaka tseo a ka tsetelang ho tsona ka nakoana le tseo hamorao a ka qaptjoang ka likarolo tse lekanang tsa ho itlhahloba le ho nahana. E mashome a tšeletseng a metso e robong ea litšoantšo tsena tse takiloeng, mebala ea metsi, litšoantšo, litšoantšo tse hatisitsoeng le likoahelo tsa limakasine li hlahisitsoe—hammoho le mesebetsi e mashome a mararo a metso e mehlano e buang ka sehlooho e entsoeng ke litsebi tse ling—pontšong ea Edward Hopper le American Hotel e Virginia Museum of Fine Arts e Richmond. .

Mohlomong ho loketse hore pontšo e hlophisoe ke 'me e etse hore e qale moo. Ba ha Hoppers ba ile ba etela Richmond ka makhetlo a 'maloa. Bonono ba hae bo ne bo tla hlahisoa lipontšong tse latelang tse lilemo tse peli. Hopper o ile a khutlela setsing sa pokello ea nalane ka 1953 bakeng sa pontšo ea Moahloli oa Jury, nakong eo setsi sa pokello ea nalane se neng se reka Ntlo ka shoalane. Setšoantšo se tsoang ketelong ena se bontša Hopper le sebini sa Richmond Bell Worsham ba eme ka pel'a penta ea Hopper Early Sunday Morning. Ka mor'a puisano e matla, ka libaka tsa bolulo tsa banyalani leetong lena, mookameli oa musiamo, Leslie Cheek Jr., o ile a tiisetsa Hopper, "Ha u ntse u le Richmond u tla aroloa hoteleng ea Jefferson, mohaho oa Beaux-Arts ke lumela hore u tla o thabela. .” Ho ne ho e-na le lihotele tse ngata tseo Cheek a ka beng a behile Hopper ho tsona, empa a etsa bonnete ba hore sebini se lula setsing se tsejoang e le "se setle ka ho fetisisa ka Boroa".

Mosebetsi oa Hopper bakeng sa Tsamaiso ea Hotel o hlile oa susumetsa mosebetsi oa hae. Lintho tseo a ileng a li etsetsa Tsamaiso ea Lihotele—esita le lifoto tse ling le lipapatso le lingoliloeng—li ile tsa fana ka polokelo ea litšoantšo le likhopolo tseo a neng a tla khutlela ho tsona khafetsa.

MONGOLI OA TŠEPISANG MOSEBETSI: Stanley Turkel o ile a khethoa e le Rahistori oa Selemo oa 2020 ke Historic Hotels of America, lenaneo le molaong la National Trust for Historic Preservation, leo a neng a reiloe lebitso la lona pejana ka 2015 le 2014. Turkel ke moeletsi oa hotele ea phatlalatsoang ho fetisisa United States. O sebetsa ka mokhoa oa hae oa boeletsi ba hotele e le paki e nang le boiphihlelo linyeoeng tse amanang le hotele, o fana ka taolo ea thepa le lipuisano tsa ho rekisa ka lihotele. O netefalitsoe e le Master Hotel Supplier Emeritus ke Setsi sa Thuto sa American Hotel le Lodging Association. [imeile e sirelelitsoe] 917-628-8549

Buka ea hae e ncha "Great American Hotel Architects Volume 2" e sa tsoa phatlalatsoa.

Libuka tse ling tse hatisitsoeng tsa Hotel:

• Lihotele tse Khabane tsa Amerika: Bo-pula-maliboho ba indasteri ea lihotele (2009)

• E hahiloe ka nako e telele: Lihotele tse 100+ tsa New York (2011)

• E hahiloe ka nako e telele: Lihotele tse lilemo li 100+ tsa Bochabela ho Mississippi (2013)

• Hotele Mavens: Lucius M. Boomer, George C. Boldt, Oscar oa Waldorf (2014)

• Lihotele tsa Great American Hoteliers Karolo ea 2: Bo-pula-maliboho ba indasteri ea Hotel (2016)

• E hahiloe ka nako e telele: Lihotele tse 100+ tse nang le lilemo tse ngata Bophirimela ho Mississippi (2017)

• Hotel Mavens Buka ea 2: Henry Morrison Flagler, Henry Bradley Plant, Carl Graham Fisher (2018)

• Baetsi ba Lihotele ba Great American Hotel Moqolo I (2019)

• Hotele Mavens: Buka ea 3: Bob le Larry Tisch, Ralph Hitz, Cesar Ritz, Curt Strand

Libuka tsena kaofela li ka odaroa ho AuthorHouse ka ho etela stanleyturkel.com  le ho tobetsa sehlooho sa buka.

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