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Puso le Mekhatlo ea Bordeaux Wineries: Ka Molao le Ka Khetho

setšoantšo ka tlhompho ea E.Garely

Indasteri ea veine ea Fora e thehiloe holim'a melaoana: li-cepages (mefuta ea morara e sebelisoang ho etsa veine), jeokrafi, lihlahisoa, botsofali hammoho le lintlha tse ling tsa "lokela ho etsa" tse khethiloeng ka har'a lebitso le leng le le leng. Ka lebaka la liqholotso tse tobaneng le baetsi ba veine ba Mafora, boitekong ba ho rarolla melao, ho e kobeha kapa ho e qoba, baetsi ba veine ba hlokolosi ka ho bapatsa ba fumana hore "mekhatlo" ea libaka tsa veine e theha tsela e sebetsang ea ho fumana phaello e tlase.

A. Les Cotes de Bordeaux (Les Cotes)

Les Cotes e thehiloe (2008) ka ho kopanngoa ha mabitso a mane a ileng a etsa qeto ea ho hokahanya le ho rekisa e le sehlopha ho e-na le ho ba lirapa tsa morara ka bomong. Sehlopha sa hajoale se ne se kenyelletsa Blaye, Cadillac, Cote de Franc le Castillon mme hammoho ba thehile lebitso la bobeli le leholo Bordeaux ka lihekthere tse 12,000 (30,000 acres).

Ho tloha qalong, thepa e romelloang kantle ho naha e eketsehile ka liperesente tse ka bang 29 ka bongata le 34 +/- ka bongata. Mokhatlo o khonne ho fumana litheko tse betere ka liphatlalatso tse kopaneng mme balemi ba banyenyane ba Les Cotes ba rua molemo tloaelong ea bareki ea ho reka ka kotloloho ho tsoa meahong e monyako oa kamore ea ka tlung.

Les Cotes de Bordeaux e kenyelletsa:

Kopano ea maeto a lefats'e ka bophara Mmaraka oa maeto oa Lefatše London o khutlile! Mme o memilwe. Ona ke monyetla oa hau oa ho hokahana le basebetsi-'moho le uena indastering, marang-rang a lithaka, ho ithuta lintlha tsa bohlokoa le ho fihlela katleho ea khoebo ka matsatsi a 3 feela! Ngolisa ho boloka sebaka sa hau kajeno! e tla etsahala ho tloha ka la 7-9 Pulungoana 2022. Ngodisa hona joale!

– 1000 bahlahisi ba veine

- lihekthere tse 30,000 (karolo ea 10 lekholong ea Bordeaux eohle)

- libotlolo tse limilione tse 65, kapa linyeoe tse limilione tse 5.5; 97 lekholong veine e khubelu

- Mefuta ea morara: boholo ba veine e tsoakoa le Merlot (5-80 lekholong), hammoho le Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Franc le Malbec.

B. Vin de France (VDF). Tokoloho ea Vinicultural

Ho tloha ka 2010, sehlopha sena sa li-wineries se tsebahala ka veine ea litafole mme se nkile sebaka sa sehlopha sa khale sa vin de table. Vin de France e ka kenyelletsa mefuta ea morara (ke hore, Chardonnay kapa Merlot) le khale ho leibole empa ha e ngotsoe ho ea ka sebaka kapa lebitso - feela hore ke Sefora. Thekiso ea lefats'e ea veine e tsejoang e le VDF joale e etsa libotlolo tse limilione tse 340 ka selemo - libotlolo tse 10 li rekisoa motsotsoana o mong le o mong.

Veine ea VDF ke veine e sa fihlelleng litekanyetso tse behiloeng ke AOC kapa IGP (Indication Geographique Progegee) melao ea mabitso - mohlomong lirapa tsa morara li fumaneha kantle ho sebaka sa tlhahiso e lekanyelitsoeng kapa mefuta ea morara kapa mekhoa ea vinification ha e tsamaellane le melao ea mabitso a lehae. . Mohopolo (o neng o nkuoa e le oa boqapi ka nako eo), o ile oa lumella li-vintners ho tsoaka veine e tsoang libakeng tse fapaneng le mefuta e mecha ea mefuta ea morara, e emelang phetoho ea bohlokoa bakeng sa naha e kopantsoeng le likarolo tsa veine tsa libaka. VDF e ne e etselitsoe ho lokolla baetsi ba veine, ho lumella tlhahiso ea veine e ka qothisanang lehlokoa le lihlahisoa tsa machaba le ho nolofatsa veine ea Fora, ho etsa hore e fumanehe habonolo ho bareki.

Litsamaiso tsa veine tsa French jeokrafi li bile phephetso ho Maamerika kaha barekisi le ba sommeliers ba ile ba phephetsoa ho fetolela appellation d'origine controlee (AOC) classification system le mathata a eona. VDF e fana ka mokhoa o bonolo oa ho hlahisa veine ea boleng bo holimo le sebaka se setle sa ho kena bakeng sa bareki ba nang le thahasello ea ho hlahloba veine ea Fora ho kenyeletsoa Sauvignon Blanc, Pinot Noir, Chardonnay, Merlot, le Cabernet Sauvignon. Lithekiso tsa VDF ka 2019 li ne li balloa linyeoe tse limilione tse 1.6 mme Amerika Leboea e le 'maraka oa bone o moholo, e emelang liperesente tse 12 tsa molumo le liperesente tse 16 tsa boleng bo rekisitsoeng.

C. Counseil Interprofessional du Vin de Bordeaux (Bordeaux Wine Council, CIVB)

Ka 1948 Lekgotla la Veine la Bordeaux le ile la hlahiswa ka Molao wa Fora mme le kopanya balemi ba veine, barekisi le barekisi ba nang le mosebetsi o le mong:

1. Papatso. Khothaletsa tlhokahalo, hira bareki ba bacha, 'me u netefatse hore ba tšepahetse ho lets'oao.

2. Thuto. Ho ea khoebong le ho matlafatsa likamano.

3. Setsebi. Haha tsebo; sireletsa boleng ba veine ea Bordeaux; ho lebella litlhoko tse ncha tse amanang le tikoloho, CSR le melaoana ea polokeho ea lijo.

4. Moruo. Fana ka bohlale mabapi le tlhahiso, mmaraka, tikoloho le thekiso ea veine ea Bordeaux lefatšeng ka bophara.

5. Lithahasello. Sireletsa li-terroirs, loantša maqheka, nts'etsapele bohahlauli ba veine.

6. Karolelano. E thusa ho tsebisa moreki ka ho fokotsa kotsi ha maemo a hlolisanoa, nako le nako 'me a fana ka tlhahlobo e hlokolosi ea veine ke bahlahlobisisi ba machaba.

Ka la 28 Phuptjane 2019, CIVD, ha e sheba lilemo tse peli tsa lipatlisiso, e khothalelitse ho eketsoa ha mefuta e tšeletseng ea morara e hanyetsanang le mocheso e neng e sa lengoa sebakeng seo pele, hore e lumelloe ka molao hore e sebelisoe mefuteng ea Bordeaux. Phetoho e ile ea amoheloa ka lebaka la tšabo ea ho futhumala ha lefatše ho senya indasteri eohle. Ha boemo ba leholimo bo ntse bo chesa haholo, baetsi ba veine ba leka ho sebetsana le boemo ba leholimo bo bakileng liphetoho tsa tatso ba sebelisa litsela tse ngata ho fumana tharollo.

Ka la 26 Pherekhong 2021, Institut National de l'Origne et de la Qualite (INAO), mokhatlo o laola khetho ea morara, o lumelletse ka molao tšebeliso ea mefuta e mene e mecha ea morara o mofubelu le o mosoeu sebakeng sa Bordeaux ho kenyelletsa:

Marang-rang:

Arinarnoa

Li-Castets

Marselan

Naction ea Touriga

Tšoeu:

Alvarinho

Liliorila

Mefuta ena ke tlatsetso ho morara o amohetsoeng hajoale ka litlhaloso tse teng tsa mabitso.

Merara e kotsing haholo ke Merlot le Sauvignon Blanc tse etsang bongata ba morara o mofubelu le o mosoeu sebakeng sa Bordeaux. Phetoho ea boemo ba leholimo ho elella bofelong ba lilemo tsa bo-1990, kotulo ea morara ona o butsoitseng kapele e ile ea fetela Phato ka la 10 Loetse ho isa ho la 10 Mphalane e le tloaelo ea khale ea kotulo. Lipatlisiso li fana ka maikutlo a hore mefuta ena e 'meli ea morara joalokaha e le teng hona joale, e ka ba e se nang thuso ka 2050.

D. Syndicate des Crus Bourgeois

Ka 1907, ho ile ha etsoa molao o neng o bolella balemi hore ba bolele boholo ba kotulo ea bona ’me ba ka hlahisa veine e ngata kamoo kotulo ea bona e phatlalalitsoeng e ka e etsang. Leha ho le joalo, balemi ba bang ba ile ba feteletsa boholo ba kotulo ea bona (1907-08) kahoo - ba ne ba ka eketsa thekiso ea bona ka veine e theko e tlaase e tsoang Midi kapa ba tlisa veine ho tsoa ka ntle ho sebaka seo.

Khafetsa Mafora a lekile ho codify boleng. Ka 1932 Mafora a ile a leka ho kenya chateaux e sa tsejweng haholo tsamaisong ya dihlopha e neng e kenyelletsa difeineri tse 444, tse 6 tsa maemo a hodimo a crus bourgeois special, 99 crus bourgeois superior le 339 plain crus bourgeois.

Ka 1966, boemo bo ile ba hlalosoa bocha ke Syndicate des Crus Bourgeois mme ka 1978 ho ne ho thathamisitsoe li-chateaux tse 128. Ka 1978 European Community (eo hona joale e leng EU) e ile ea etsa qeto ea hore mantsoe a GRAND le EXCEPTIONAL a ne a se na moelelo 'me a ke ke a hlola a sebelisoa. Ho tloha ka nako eo, bourgeois bohle ba crus e ne e le bourgeois ba crus feela. Sena se ile sa bula liheke hore batho ba ka ntle ho Medoke ba sebelise lentsoe lena.

Kamoo Syndicate e sebetsang hona joale:

Chateaux ba batlang ho sebelisa lebitso la cru bourgeois ba sebetsa ho Syndicat (litšenyehelo tsa $435). Thepa e fana ka tlhahisoleseling mabapi le ts'ebetso (litlaleho tsa nalane, mekhoa ea vinification, jj.)

Lintlha tsa ho kenyelletsa e tla ba:

– Terroir

- Boleng (lisampole tsa veine tse tsoang lijaneng tse 6 tse tla latsoa ke komiti)

– Maemo a viticulture le vinification

- Ho lumellana ha boleng

– Botumo

Na chateaux e sebelisang lebitso la cru bourgeois ha joale bakeng sa veine ea bona ea bobeli e tla lumelloa ho tsoela pele?

Na chateaux e 'ngoe le e 'ngoe e tla ba le kamore ea eona e ka tlaase?

See se siea likoporasi hokae? 

Komiti e na le litho tse 18 (bonyane setho se le seng sa fakalthi se tsoang Bordeaux School of Enology, brokers, negociants, cru bourgeois Syndicat litho). Li-wineries li tla hlahlojoa lilemo tse ling le tse ling tse 10-12. Bakopi ba nkoang ba sa nepahala ba ke ke ba lumelloa ho sebelisa lebitso la cru bourgeois mangolong a bona mme ba tla tlameha ho ema ho fihlela tlhahlobo e latelang ho etsa kopo hape.

Haufinyane tjena, Syndicat e khutlisitse "e ikhethang" le "e phahameng" hammoho le sistimi e nang le likarolo tse tharo ho khothaletsa bahlahisi ho tsepamisa maikutlo ho boleng le ho sebetsa ka mokhoa oa bona. Sistimi ea tiered e laoloa ka thata e le hore mantsoe a phahameng le a ikhethang a be le boleng. Kotsi tsamaisong ke hore lenane le tla ba boima ka ho fetesisa le tse ngata haholo tse nkuoang li ikhethile ebile li fokola haholo joalo ka bo-crus bourgeois ba tloaelehileng ba etsang hore ho be thata ho boloka sebopeho sa phiramide.

Label ea Botlolo ea Veine

Litlaleho tsa veine tsa Fora li na le lebitso la motse eseng mefuta ea morara. Ke tiisetso ya hore morara wa veine o tswa motseng o itseng kapa sebakeng se itseng kaha sebaka se seng le se seng sa veine se na le melao e ikgethang e laolang hore na ke mefuta efe ya morara e ka lengwang, chai e dumelletsweng le hore na veine e hlahiswa jwang. Liveine tsa Fora tse reng AOC, AC, le AOP li tiisa hore veine e hlahisoa ho latela mekhoa e thata ea ho etsa veine.

Sistimi ea AOC e hlophisitsoeng ea litekanyetso tsa tlhahiso e kenyelletsa:

1. Lebitso la moetsi

2. Morara o hōlileng ka lebitso le leng le le leng

3. Likahare tsa joala

4. Molumo

5. Liphutheloana

6. Lithibelo holim'a mefuta ea mobu

7. Metrics e shebaneng le liphetho joalo ka lihlahisoa tse ngata kapa litaba tsa joala.

Veine Futures

Ho na le mabaka a ho ba le tšepo har'a batšehetsi ba veine ba Bordeaux kaha palo ea libaka tsa veine tsa Bordeaux e ntse e tsoela pele ho feta lilemo tse ka bang leshome ha bahlahisi ba utloisisa melemo ea tikoloho le khoebo ea ho fetola tlhahiso. Ho hakanngoa hore ka 2030, karolo ea 100 lekholong ea libaka tsa veine e tla be e e-na le litekanyetso tse itseng tsa mekhoa e tsitsitseng ea temo/tlhahiso.

Ka 2014, karolo ea 34 lekholong ea libaka tsa veine tsa Bordeaux li ne li lema ka mokhoa oa tlhaho, oa moshoelella tlas'a HEV (boleng bo phahameng ba tikoloho) ka setifikeiti sa HEV se tsepamisitse maikutlo ho fokotseng tšebeliso ea chefo e bolaeang likokoanyana le ho eketsa mefuta-futa ea lintho tse phelang, Terra Vitis, kapa biodynamic certified. Hona joale palo e ntse e phahama ho karolo ea 65 lekholong (hoo e ka bang).

Ho latela Jeremy Noye, Mopresidente le CEO oa New York's Morrell & Co., "Bordeaux ehlile e fana ka boleng bo betere ho feta Napa." Bakeng sa boleng, barati ba veine ea Bordeaux ba ka qhelela thoko lileibole tsa First Growth tse rekisoang ka $600 botlolo le kholo ea bobeli ka $300, 'me ba tsamaisetse mohala oa bona ho petits-chateaux o tlohang ho $20-$70 a 750-ml. Bordeaux haufinyane tjena e behile No. 1 har'a libaka tse kholo ka ho fetisisa tsa veine tse rekisoang Fora, Displace Provence.

Ena ke letoto le shebaneng le veine ea Bordeaux.

Bala Karolo ea 1 Mona:  Bordeaux Wines: E qalile ka Bokhoba

Bala Karolo ea 2 Mona:  Veine ea Bordeaux: Pivot ho tloha ho Batho ho ea Mobu

Bala Karolo ea 3 Mona:  Bordeaux le Liveine tsa Eona li Fetola… Butle

© Dr. Elinor Garely. Sengoloa sena sa litokelo tsa mantlha, ho kenyeletsoa linepe, se kanna sa hlahisoa bocha ntle le tumello e ngotsoeng ea mongoli.

#veini

Mabapi le mongoli

Ngaka Elinor Garely - ea ikhethang ho eTN le mohlophisi ea ka sehloohong, li-veine

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