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China Litaba Tse Potlakileng

Motho le Tlhaho. Lenaneo la UNESCO la Motho le Biosphere

Ho tloha ha Chaena e kenela Lenaneo la UNESCO la Motho le Biosphere (MAB), haholo-holo motheo oa Komiti ea Naha ea Chaena bakeng sa Lenaneo la MAB (MAB Chaena), ts'ebetsong ea MAB e phethile karolo e ntle ho paballo ea mefuta-futa ea lihloliloeng, tšebeliso e tsitsitseng ea lisebelisoa tsa tlhaho, kaho ea tikoloho. tsoelo-pele le Chaena e ntle, le nts'etsopele ea lipatlisiso tsa tikoloho Chaena, Wang Ding, mongoli kakaretso oa MAB Chaena, morao tjena o re sehloohong se hatisitsoeng ho Bulletin of Chinese Academy of Sciences.

Sehloohong sa hae "Ho Kopanya Kamano pakeng tsa Batho le Tlhaho le ho Finyella Tsoelo-pele e Tsoelang Pele: Lenaneo la UNESCO la Motho le Biosphere Chaena," Wang o hlahloba tsoelo-pele ea ts'ebetsong ea MAB Chaena, o hlahloba mathata le mathata, 'me o etsa litlhahiso mabapi le litlhoko tse ntseng li eketseha tsa taolo ea tikoloho ea lefats'e le ho aha sechaba sa bokamoso bo arolelanoang bakeng sa bophelo bohle Lefatšeng ka tšebelisano-mmoho ka har'a lichaba tsa machaba.

Lilemong tsa bo-1950 le bo-1960, tšilafalo le tšireletso ea tikoloho li ile tsa hapa tlhokomelo ea batho butle-butle. Ka 1971, René Maheu, molaoli kakaretso oa mehleng oa UNESCO, o ile a qala Lenaneo la MAB lefatšeng ka bophara Kopanong e Akaretsang ea UNESCO. China e ile ea kenella lenaneong lena ka 1973, mme Komiti ea Naha ea Chaena bakeng sa Lenaneo la UNESCO la Motho le Biosphere (MAB China) e thehiloe ka 1978, ka tšehetso ea Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) ka tšebelisano le makala a mang a sebetsanang le tsamaiso ea tikoloho. paballo, meru, temo, thuto, maoatle le sepakapaka, joalo-joalo. Ho tloha ka nako eo, MAB China e entse liteko tse fapaneng tse kopanyang boleng ba UNESCO-MAB le litlhoko tsa libaka tsa tlhaho tsa China.

Ho ea ka sehlooho se reng, Chaena hona joale e hahile, e le 'ngoe feela lefatšeng, naha ea eona ea libaka tsa polokelo ea lintho tsa tlhaho,' me e entse ts'ireletso e ruileng ea tlhaho le mekhoa ea tsoelo-pele e tsitsitseng e thehiloeng marang-rang. Kakaretso ea libaka tsa tlhaho tse sirelelitsoeng tse 34, joalo ka Changbaishan Nature Reserve e Jilin, Dinghushan Nature Reserve e Guangdong le Wolong Nature Reserve e Sichuan li khethiloe ke UNESCO e le libaka tsa tlhaho tsa lefats'e, 'me palo eohle e maemong a pele Asia. Wang o re: "Libaka tsena tsa polokelo li na le mefuta-futa ea lintho tse phelang le paballo ea tikoloho, ts'ebeliso e tsitsitseng ea lisebelisoa tsa tlhaho, lipatlisiso le tšebelisano 'moho ea machaba ho nts'etsopele ea libaka tse sirelelitsoeng le sechaba se haufi."

E le ho sebelisa ka botlalo sethaleng sa phapanyetsano ea machaba ea MAB le ho atolosa ka ho eketsehileng tšusumetso ea MAB Chaena, Chaena ea Biosphere Reserves Network (CBRN) e thehiloe 1993. Qetellong ea 2020, libaka tsa tlhaho tse sirelelitsoeng tsa 185 li ne li kenyelelitsoe marang-rang ana, Karolo ea 80 lekholong ea tsona e ne e le libaka tsa polokelo ea tlhaho tsa naha, tse etsang karolo ea 31 lekholong ea kakaretso ea libaka tsa tlhaho tsa Chaena. Marang-rang ana a akaretsa hoo e batlang e le mefuta eohle e meholo ea tikoloho le libaka tse sirelelitsoeng ka har'a naha. "Mathata a marang-rang a tšoara lithupelo tsa lithupelo le mesebetsi e meng ea phapanyetsano selemo se seng le se seng, e fetoha e 'ngoe ea liforomo tsa bohlokoa tsa phapanyetsano ea mafapha le li-inter-disciplinary bakeng sa libaka tse sirelelitsoeng tsa tlhaho," Wang oa ngola.

"Hoa hlokomeleha hore CBRN ke marang-rang a pele a naha a amanang le marang-rang a libaka tsa polokelo ea lintho tse phelang lefatšeng (WBRN), 'me mosebetsi ona oa bopula-maliboho o ananeloa haholo ke UNESCO. Boikitlaetso bona bo khothalelitse UNESCO ho aha marang-rang a tikoloho le marang-rang a mantlha a libaka tsa polokelo ea tikoloho ea lefats'e, tseo, ho isa bohōleng bo itseng, li ileng tsa phatlalatsa bohlale ba China lefatšeng ka bophara. Ka 1996, MAB China e ile ea fuoa Khau ea Fred M. Packard (e 'ngoe ea likhau tsa bohlokoa ka ho fetisisa tsa machaba tsa paballo ea tlhaho) ke International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), 'me lebaka le ka sehloohong la khau ena e ne e le ho thehoa ha CBRN ho ntšetsa pele. mokhoa o pharaletseng oa MAB," o tsoela pele.

Wang o senola hore mekhoa e metle ea nts'etsopele e tsitsitseng e entsoe libakeng tsa polokelo ea tikoloho. Mohlala, likamano lipakeng tsa libaka tsa polokelo ea tikoloho le baahi ba tikolohong eo li ntlafalitsoe ho khothaletsa nts'etsopele ea moshoelella, 'me bohahlauli ba tikoloho bo khothalelitsoe ho khothaletsa nts'etsopele ea moshoelella. Jwaloka lenaneo la lefatshe lohle la mahlale a kopanetsweng ke mebuso, MAB e tsheheditse palo e kgolo ya diporojeke tsa dipatlisiso, mme e hlophisitse le ho kenya tshebetsong diporojeke tse ngatanyana tsa dipatlisiso le ho beha leihlo ka tshebedisano le mekgatlo e meng e nang le bolaodi ka hara naha le mose ho tloha dilemong tsa bo-1980. Khopolo ea kutloano pakeng tsa motho le tlhaho e fetisitsoe ke mecha ea litaba ea setso le e mecha, hape ho na le letoto la mesebetsi ea koetliso ho ntlafatsa bokhoni ba libaka tsa polokelo.

Ho sa tsotellehe katleho e kholo, Wang o bolela, ho ntse ho e-na le mathata a mang a ho kenya ts'ebetsong lenaneo lena Chaena. "Haholo-holo, e tla ba mosebetsi o moholo ho China ho fana ka papali e felletseng ho melemo le ho lokisa mefokolo ea nako ea kamora lefu la seoa le kaho ea tikoloho e sirelelitsoeng ea tikoloho e laoloang ke lirapeng tsa boikhathollo tsa naha," o boletse joalo. "MAB China e tla etsa boiteko ba ho nts'etsapele nts'etsopele e ntle ea UNESCO-MAB naheng ea China ka likarolo tse tharo."

Ea pele ke ho matlafatsa karolo e ka sehloohong ea mahlale. "Hoa hlokahala ho tsoela pele ho bapala karolo ea pele le e tšehetsang ea mahlale le theknoloji hammoho le melemo ea sehlopha sa talenta sa CAS." O boetse o fana ka maikutlo a ho matlafatsa tšebelisano ea machaba ho khothaletsa lipuisano lipakeng tsa China le lefats'e. “Ka lehlakoreng le leng, re tla tsoela pele ho fetisetsa khopolo e tsoetseng pele ea machaba ea tsamaiso ea lintho tse phelang le tikoloho ea tsona ho Chaena; ka lehlakoreng le leng, re tla phatlalatsa phihlelo ea Chaena kahong ea morao tjena ea tsoelo-pele ea tikoloho le bohlale ba Machaena lefatšeng ka bophara,” o re. Tlhahiso ea hae ea boraro ke ho fana ka papali e eketsehileng ho litsebi tsa mafapha a amanang le ho bokella bohlale ho haha ​​sechaba sa bokamoso bo arolelanoang bakeng sa bophelo bohle lefatšeng.

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